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Saul Proclaimed King until its destruction by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. Political fortunes rise and fall according to whether various kings do "what is right" in the Lord's eyes or not. His son, Pekahiah, ruled only briefly. He also struck against Judah, where he reportedly sacked Jerusalem and looted its Temple (2 Kings 14). According to the Book of Samuel, he ruled with God's approval for only two years, due to his disobedience in failing to complete the slaughter of the Amalekites. When war with Damascus broke out again, and Ahab died battle at Ramoth-Gilead. In declaring "Here are your 'gods' (Elohim), O Israel" was Jeroboam I truly denying Yahweh/Elohim, or was he merely declaring that the God of Israel (Elohim) could be worshiped just as well at Dan and Bethel as in Jerusalem? This kingdom existed alongside the southern kingdom of Judah, which encompassed the more limited territory of the tribe of … Browse by subject - click on a letter below. 2 Samuel 12:10 God told David that the sword wasn’t going to depart from his house because of his sin with Bathsheba. It was split into Kingdom of Israel in the North and Kingdom of Judah in the South. A sequence of rulers from the same family. The kingdom consisting of the northern Israelites tribes, which existed separately from the southern kingdom of Judah. The first begins with the rebellion of Jeroboam and ends with the ascension of the Omrian dynasty. The history of the Northern Kingdom will be divided into four segments. Baasha's son Elah (888) was slain in a military coup led by the cavalry commander Zimri. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. His assassin, Pekah, took the throne around 735 B.C.E., just in time to face the return of the Assyrians. In addition, 1 Kings also relates that Solomon imposed onerous taxes and forced labor on the northern tribes yet exempted Judah, leading the ten northern tribes to defect. The United Kingdom of Saul, David, and Solomon endured for a period of 120 biblical years and then split into two nations. Saul’s failure to establish a dynasty is interpreted in the Bible as Yahweh’s rejection of his kingship. 1Rehoboam went to Shechem, for all Israel had come to Shechem to make him king.2When Jeroboam son of Nebat heard of it (for he was st ... View more, Hoshea Reigns over Israel There are no contemporary extra-biblical references to the leaders of the United Kingdom. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah, Louisville KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1986, Thiele, Edwin R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic & Professional; Reprint edition, 1994. Israel reached the zenith of its power after the ascension of Jeroboam II (c. 783), who recaptured substantial Syrian and transjordanian territories and made Israel an even greater power than it had been in the days of the Omrian dynasty. Pekah was assassinated by Hoshea. Every king of Israel was evil. The house of Omri is a common designation of the northern Kingdom of Israel in Assyrian royal inscriptions, which continued to be used long after Omri’s dynasty was overthrown. The harsh labor policy of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, gave the northern tribes a strong reason to coalesce under the leadership of Jeroboam I. Jeroboam united the northern tribes and created or expanded two major religious shrines, one in the northern district of Dan, the other just a few miles north of Jerusalem at Bethel. Zimri's reign was short-lived, however, and of the two leaders who competed to succeed him, the military general Omri soon emerged victorious. Jehu’s dynasty lasted through a total of five kings (2Kgs 15:12) and was followed by the brief reign of the usurper Shallum, the short-lived dynasty of Menahem, and the reigns of Pekah and Hoshea. A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. This kingdom existed alongside the southern kingdom of Judah, which encompassed the more limited territory of the tribe of Judah. According to these biblical works, the first king of united Israel was Saul, who was from the tribe of Benjamin. Archaeologists point out that until its demise, the Northern Kingdom was far more prosperous, populous, and advanced than the Southern Kingdom in terms of architecture and other aspects of culture; yet the bible portrays Jerusalem the only Hebrew city of glory and denigrates the cosmopolitan successes of North as manifestations of idolatry. The story of Jeroboam and the sanctuaries at Dan and Bethel, as described in the book of Kings may tell us more about later religious struggles than about an actual reality. ©Copyright 2019, Society of Biblical Literature He defended Israel against the threat from Damascus and eventually forged an alliance with Judah and Damascus against the growing Assyrian power of Shalmaneser II. He vigorously prosecuted the war with Damascus, but internal opposition by internal religious forces grew stronger. 11The time that David reigned over Israel was forty years; he reigned seven years in Hebron, and thirty-three years in Jerusalem. A system of rule with a monarch as its head; or the hereditary system passed from one monarch to another. This enabled Jehoahaz' son Joash (also called Jehoash to distinguish him from the Judean king of the same name) to defeat Damascus' new king, Ben-hadad III, in battle and recapture lost territory. But we know God promises to gather His children (Matthew 24:31; Mark 13:27) and reunite the two kingdoms one day. When Israel refuses to change her ways, the prophetic doom pronounced by these oracles comes to pass in the form of the final Assyrian victory over Israel in 722 B.C.E.. For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronology of Gershon Galil, all of which are shown below. The calf first appears in the time of Moses (Ex 32), but golden calves were also worshipped in Northern Israel during the monarchy. He ended the fratricidal war with Judah and established a friendship with the Phoenician power of Tyre, sealed by a marriage between his son Ahab and the Tyrian princess Jezebel. Chronicles’ main source was the books of Samuel and Kings, so it is not an independent history. However because even the kings of this pro-Yahwist dynasty allow the worship of the Canaanite goddess Ashera and refuse to pull down the bull calf statues at Dan and Bethel, they too are judged as evil in God's sight. Israel's territory was now little more than the district surrounding the capital of Samaria. From a human viewpoint, the division was the result of tribal discord and political unrest. The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malkut Yisrael) was the kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1030 B.C.E. Its significance is also reflected, albeit negatively, in the preoccupation of 1-2 Kings with the characters of Ahab (an Israelite king) and his wife Jezebel. A similar problem arises with regard to population. The Great Kingdom of Israel or Kingdom of Israel (in Hebrew: ממלכת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Mamlekt Yiśraˀel, Modern Hebrew: Mamlekhet Yisra'el, Tiberian vocalization: Mamléḵeṯ Yisrael) was an authoritarian monarchy that existed between 1046 BC and 430 BC. Its capital was the city of Jerusalem. Around 722 B.C., the Assyrians invaded and destroyed the northern kingdom of Israel. Omri established a powerful dynasty and made Israel into a major regional power. The deportees were scattered throughout the East. The division of the once-unified Israel into two kingdoms occurred when Jeroboam, from the tribe of Ephraim, led the northern tribes’ revolt against Solomon’s son, Rehoboam. The Israelites formed their capital in the city of Samaria, and the Judaeans kept their capital in Jerusalem. David chose the Canaanite city of Jerusalem as his capital and is said to have had the Ark of the Covenant moved there. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. The last king of Israel, Hoshea remained an Assyrian vassal until around 724 when the resurgence of Egypt's counterbalancing power led him to believe that revolt against Assyria could succeed. This “sin” hovers like a curse over the entire northern kingdom of Israel in its apparent inability to establish an enduring ruling dynasty through any of its kings—unlike its southern neighbor Judah, whose Davidic dynasty continued in unbroken succession. Lines of Kings ) and reunite the two kingdoms one day as Yahweh ’ s reign is so sparse scholars... Tribes ( 1 Kings 9: 6-7 God warns Solomon about being obedient his! Lasted for about 210 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in B.C.E... 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